With over 750,000 procedures performed annually, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common ambulatory surgical procedure performed in the USA.

Despite its proven safety record, the incidence of common bile duct injuries and conversions remain at an unacceptable high rate. The introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has increased the number of common bile duct injuries to approximately 4 to 8 in 1000 cases. Conversions are estimated between 4% to 8 %. The most common reason for CBDI is surgeons misidentification of the biliary tree anatomy. Near infrared fluorescent cholangiography is a new, non invasive imaging modality that will allow surgeons to identify the biliary tree before dissection is performed without the need of radiation or to do an incision. The RCT of fluorescent cholangiography has shown that NIRFC is safe, efficacious, cost effective and should be use routinely during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.